The prefixes are really tricky, but also not impossible! I’ve sometimes heard people compare them to phrasal verbs in English (which are equally as frustrating).
The good thing is, you don’t need to understand what the prefixes mean. Nobody does. Often, the prefixes are prepositions like up, out, down, under, over,… But the best way to go about prefixes is to learn the words as they are.
In English, you don’t think of understand as standing under a bridge. Similarly, don’t learn Ausflug as out-flight, because you’ll probably think of flying away somewhere when your German friend just wants to go to the lake nearby
One prefix I think is worth mentioning, that is so elusive and NEVER makes sense, is ver-. I’m a huge fan of it, because it’s so weird. It is very versatile (sorry, pun), it can totally change the meaning of a word. It even implies a meaning of changing something, perhaps doing something wrong. Just to illustrate why you should just learn the words as they are…
laufen = walk/run -> verlaufen = get lost/walk the wrong way
stehen = stand -> verstehen = understand (just as weird in English)
sprechen = speak -> versprechen = misspeak OR promise
I totally digressed there, and I apologise. Main message is, don’t worry about prefixes because they don’t care about you either